C is perhaps the foremost widely known programing language .



It is used as the reference language for computer science courses all over the world, and it’s probably the language that people learn the most in school among with Python and Java.

I remember it being my second programming language ever, after Pascal.
C is not just what students use to learn programming.

It’s not an academic language. And I would say it’s not the easiest language, because C is a rather low level programming language.

Today, C is widely used in embedded devices, and it powers most of the
Internet servers, which are built using Linux.

The Linux kernel is built using C, and this also means that C powers the core of all Android devices.

We can say that C code runs a good portion of the entire world. Right now. Pretty

When it was created, C was considered a high level language, because it was
portable across machines.

Today we kind of give for granted that we can run a program written on a Mac on Windows or Linux, perhaps using Node.js or Python.

Once upon a time, this was not the case at all.

What C brought to the table was a language simple to implement, having a compiler that would be easily ported to different machines.

I said compiler: C may be a compiled programing language , like Go, Java, Swift or
Rust. Other popular programing language like Python, Ruby or JavaScript
are interpreted.

The difference is consistent: a compiled language generates a binary file that can be directly executed and distributed.

C is not garbage collected. This means we have to manage memory ourselves.

It’s a complex task and one that requires a lot of attention to prevent bugs, but it is also what makes C ideal to write programs for embedded devices like Arduino C does not hide the complexity and the capabilities of the machine underneath.

You have a lot of power, once you know what you can do.

I want to introduce the first C program now, which we’ll call “Hello, World!”


int main(void) {
printf("Hello, World!");

Let’s describe the program source code: we first import the stdio library (the
name stands for standard input-output library).

This library gives us access to input/output functions.

C is a very small language at its core, and anything that’s not part of the core is provided by libraries.

Some of those libraries are built by normal programmers, and made available for others to use. Some other libraries are built into the compiler. Like stdio and others.

stdio is the libraries that provides the printf() function. This function is wrapped into a main() function.

The main() function is the entry point of any C program. But what is a function, anyway?
A function is a routine that takes one or more arguments, and returns a single

In the case of main() , the function gets no arguments, and returns an integer. We identify that using the void keyword for the argument, and the int keyword for the return value.

Some Important features of C Programming Language

  • − It is a structured oriented programming language that supports top-down programming technique.
  • − It produces efficient programs.
  • − C is simple and easy to learn and use.
  • − C also provides the feature of pointers. We can use pointers in creating memory, structures, functions, array, etc.
  • − C also provides the structure for the data structure that helps in Dynamic memory allocation.

Historical Development of C

Year Language Developed By Remarks
1960 ALGOL International Committee Too General Too Abstract
1963 CPL Cambridge University Hard To learn Difficult To implement
1967 BCPL Martin Richards At Cambridge University Could Deal With Only Specific Problems
1970 B Ken Thomas At AT & T Could Deal With Only Specific Problems
1972 C Dennis Ritchie At AT & T Lost General Of BCPL And B restored
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