To create the store we use the createStore() factory function exported by Redux. It accepts three arguments: a mandatory reducer function, an optional initial state, and an optional store enhancer.

We will cover store enhancers later in this chapter and start by creating a basic store with a dummy reducer that ignores actions and simply returns the state as it is:

import { createStore } from 'redux';

const initialState = {

 recipes: [],

 ingredients: []

const reducer = (state, action) => state;

const store = createStore(reducer, initialState);

The simple store that we have just created has five methods that allow us to access, change, and observe the state. Let’s examine each of them.

Accessing the State

The getState() method returns the reference to the current state:

Get current state from store


 // => { recipes: [], ingredients: [] }

Changing the State

Sending action objects to reducers is done via the store using the store’s dispatch() method, which accepts a single argument, the action object:

Dispatch action to store

const action = { type: 'ADD_RECIPE', … }


Listening to Updates

the subscribe() method It accepts a callback function, which will be executed after every action has been dispatched:

The subscribe method

 const store = createStore((state) => state);

const onStoreChange = () => console.log(store.getState());


Replacing the Reducer

Let’s look at a simple example with some functionality available only for authenticated users.At initial load, our store will only handle the currentUser substate—just enough for the authentication:

Basic reducer setup

 import { combineReducers } from 'redux';

 import { currentUser } from 'reducers/current-user';

 const reducer = (state, action) => combineReducers({ currentUser });

 const store = createStore(reducer);

Store as Observable

To support older browsers, Redux uses the symbol-observable²⁸ polyfill when Symbol.observable is not natively supported.

Integration with RxJS

 import store from "store";

 import { Observable } from "rxjs";

 const store$ = Observable.from(store);

store$.forEach((state) => console.log(state))

Redux store observable

const observable = store[Symbol.observable]();

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