we’ll briefly highlight some differences between the Java platform and other programming environments you may be familiar with.

Java Compared to C language

  • Java is object oriented; C is procedural
  • Java is portable as class files; C needs to be recompiled.
  • Java provides extensive instrumentation as part of the runtime.
  • Java has no pointers and no equivalent of pointer arithmetic.
  • Java provides automatic memory management via garbage collection.
  • Java has no ability to lay out memory at a low level (no structs).
  • Java has no preprocessor.

Java Compared to C++ language

  • Java has a simplified object model compared to C++.
  • Java’s dispatch is virtual by default.
  • Java is always pass-by-value (but one of the possibilities for Java’s values areobject references).
  • Java does not support full multiple inheritance.
  • Java’s generics are less powerful (but also less dangerous) than C++ templates.
  • Java has no operator overloading

Java Compared to PHP

  • Java is statically typed; PHP is dynamically typed.
  • Java has a JIT; PHP does not (but might in version 6).
  • Java is a general-purpose language; PHP is rarely found outside of websites.
  • Java is multithreaded; PHP is not.

Java Compared to JavaScript

  • Java is statically typed; JavaScript is dynamically typed.
  • Java uses class-based objects; JavaScript is prototype based.
  • Java provides good object encapsulation; Javascript does not.
  • Java has namespaces; JavaScript does not.
  • Java is multithreaded; JavaScript is not.

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